In emaciation human body loses significant amounts of fats and muscles. Emaciation results in severe thinness and is characterized by considerable diminution of nutritional, vitamin, and energy consumption. Emaciation is considered to be the most pronounced variety of malnutrition. Emaciation leads to permanent damage of body organs and frequently ends in death.
The main cause of emaciation is discrepancy between energy consumption and energy spending. It means that the body spends more energy than it gets from foods. People suffering from emaciation lose fats and muscles because the organism uses their content for energy. Emaciation can result from some medical conditions such as severe depression, anorexia nervosa, diabetes, and celiac disease. Chronic drug addiction is associated with heavy personality disorders, appetite loss, and emaciation. Emaciation may be provoked by starvation with food deprivation due to poverty, fasting, and famine.
Irritability and impulsive behavior are among the early manifestations of emaciation. Emaciation makes the hunger and thirst awareness weaker. Therefore, emaciated people lose not only nutrients, but also water. These people experience considerable pains because of muscle atrophy and skin dryness. The bone contours in emaciation are easily discernible, shoulder blades are prominent, ribs are clearly seen, upper and lower extremities are almost no wider than supporting bones. Protein and vitamin deficiencies are frequent result of emaciation leading to anemia, pellagra, and scurvy. Doctors often diagnose skin rashes, fluid retention, diarrhea, and heart failure in emaciation. The shortage of energy in emaciation causes irritability, exhaustion, apathy and lethargy. People suffering from emaciation poorly interact with the surrounding world; their perceptive abilities become dimmed and diminished.